Tricholoma matsutake: un hongo comestible micorrícico de gran importancia socio-económica en China

Yun Wang, Fuqiang Yu, Chunxiang Zhang, Shuhong Li

Resumen


Antecedentes: Casi todas las especies mundialmente famosas de hongos micorrícicos comestibles (HMC), o especies estrechamente relacionadas, crecen naturalmente en China. Sin embargo, China tiene algunos hongos comestibles con distribución rara en relación al resto del mundo y con gran importancia económica.

Objetivo: Revisar el estado del arte en China de uno de los HMC con mayor importancia a nivel mundial: Tricholoma matsutake.

Resultados y conclusión: El matsutake es un complejo de especies que se distribuyen en todo el mundo y que tradicionalmente han sido muy demandadas en Japón. El crecimiento de los basidiomas de matsutake inicia a partir de una mezcla de suelo con micelio y ectomicorrizas llamado ""shiro"". El desarrollo del shiro está estrechamente relacionado con la edad de las plantas hospedantes. En Pinus densiflora generalmente comienza cuando los árboles tienen entre 10 y 20 años de edad. Los basidiomas comienzan a producirse de tres a cuatro años después de la formación del shiro. La recolección y comercialización de esta especie representa una importante fuente de sustento para los agricultores locales chinos, especialmente en las regiones montañosas donde el ingreso neto es relativamente bajo. Actualmente, existen diferentes iniciativas proteger y cultivar el matsutake.


Palabras clave


matsutake;simbiosis ectomicorrícica;productos forestales no maderables;conservación

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Referencias


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